During aqueous demolition, concrete is removed using high-pressure water. Water penetrates the porous concrete and an internal pressure develops there, which, if it exceeds the tensile strength of the concrete, removes it. Aqueous demolition is the only way to remove surface concrete from sensitive structures without causing further damage to the remaining concrete. Optionally, the water jet can be set to remove only weak or damaged concrete of a predetermined quality up to a certain depth below or above the rebar, from which rust can be removed if necessary. The remaining, high-quality concrete will have a rough, uneven surface, providing an ideal bond for the new surface material.